Disinfection is one of the important steps in the water treatment process prior to the water gets into the consumption or usage based on the end-use. Major three methods for disinfection ranging from UV, Ozonation, and Chlorination are used in the water and wastewater treatment industry. For the industrial water treatment plants, the chlorination dosing system is widely used. The UV system is also used in water and wastewater treatment plants to some extent. Ozonation is used in potable and domestic water treatment. Each has its own peculiarity ranging from Chemical treatment, Lamp based electric oriented, and gas oriented respectively. The purpose of the methods is to remove bacterial/organic content in the treated water.
The removal, deactivation, or killing of pathogenic microorganisms is known as Water disinfection. In this process, microorganisms are deactivated or destroyed, which results in the termination of growth and reproduction. Drinking water usage will cause people to fall ill if microorganisms are not removed from drinking water. The best process related to disinfection is sterilization. But as a matter of fact, during the sterilization process, all microorganisms present, both harmful and harmless ones are killed.How does disinfection work?
Usually, the final steps in reducing pathogenic microorganisms from drinking water lying with chemical inactivation of microbiological contamination in untreated or natural water. Drinking water is made safe after production by combinations of water purification steps (oxidation, coagulation, settling, disinfection, filtration). In several countries, the second layer of disinfection during the ends of the water purification processes is applied as an extra measure for protecting the water from microbiological contamination in the water distribution system. During this disinfection process, usually, a different kind of disinfectant from the one earlier in the process is used. it is ensured by the secondary disinfection that bacteria will not multiply in the water during distribution. Even after the first disinfection step, bacteria can remain in the water or can end up in the water during the backflushing of contaminated water (which can contain groundwater bacteria as a result of cracks in the plumbing).Disinfection mechanism
Commonly because of cell wall corrosion in the cells of microorganisms, Disinfection commonly takes place, or changes in cell permeability, protoplasm, or enzyme activity (because of a structural change in enzymes). Microorganisms are caused to no longer be able to multiply by these disturbances in cell activity. This will cause the microorganisms to die out. Oxidizing disinfectants also demolish organic matter in the water, causing a lack of nutrients.