Water filtration is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for specific purposes.
Water filtration may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, and fungi as well as reduce the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter.
Water filtration system is mostly a tertiary treatment process in wastewater treatment, and as the main treatment in pretreated water from the municipal water supply.
Water Filtration utilizes physical operation that separates solid impurities in the freshwater. A filter medium that has a complex structure through which only the fluid can pass. Solid particles that cannot pass through the filter medium are removes or separates as impurities and thus pure water is available for use.
Filtering media plays a vital role in the water treatment process as based on the impurities type and quantity of the media varies. Different types of media used infiltration processes are sand, gravel, anthracite, activated carbon, resins, etc.
And in advance treatment process membrane-based processes are used for further removal of total dissolved solids. Reverse osmosis is the type of treatment process used in such kind of filtration system.
Drinking water sources are subjected to contamination and require appropriate treatment for removing disease-causing agents. Various methods of water treatment are used by public drinking water systems for providing safe drinking water for their communities. In several communities, water may be treated differently depending on the quality of the water which enters the treatment plant. Surface water requires more treatment and filtration typically than ground water because rivers, lakes, and streams contain more pollutants and sediments and are much more likely to be contaminated than groundwater. Several water supplies may also contain disinfection by-products, organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, and radionuclides. Specialized methods for controlling formation removing them can also be part of water treatment.