Expansion Joints are mainly used in Pipelines to Offset Vibrations or Movements from Equipment, Thermal Movements or any other movements in the line. Basic movements could be Axial, Angular or Lateral and Joints are available in Rubber and Stainless steel based on the medium. A typical application would be Commercial and Residential Chilled water pipeline.
Provision for movement due to expansion and contraction shall be made either by loops, bellows expansion joints or by a change in direction of the pipework. Supports at such points shall be arranged to ensure that all movement is taken up by the loop, joint, or change in direction of the pipework. Where pipework is required to be prestressed for the purpose of reducing expansion stress under working conditions, the extent of the cold draw shall be calculated as half the total expansion. Expansion bellows shall be of axial pattern or as indicated and shall be provided with screwed or flanged ends as appropriate to facilitate replacement unless otherwise accepted.
Bellows shall be capable of not less than 2000 complete cycles of movement over the designed working range without failure. Expansion bellows for angular movements shall be arranged as indicated. They shall be provided with tie rods or hinges to take end thrust. All bellows expansion joints shall be provided with external protection were exposed to damage. For axial bellows, this shall comprise an external sleeve.
Bellows shall be installed so that they are not subjected to stresses other than those for which they are designed. Unless otherwise indicated they shall be installed so that they are in their free position at a temperature midway between the high and low limits of normal service.
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