By the term media filters, it is meant as the devices which are mainly used in water treatment for removing suspended solids from water. In most of the cases, it is the final stage of the pretreatment of water for removing all un-dissolved impurities before the treatment via Ion Exchange or with the help of Reverse Osmosis. Filtration is preceded by Coagulation, flocculation, and clarification. Media Filters are mainly used in water & Wastewater treatment and are either pressure or gravity filters that depend upon the flow of water. Water has been pumped via a pressure filter while the water flows by gravity inside a gravity filter. It can employ granular media like anthracite, sand, or activated carbon either alone or combined as the filter media. Filters having special media are also used for removing manganese or iron which may be present in some of the bore well waters. Pressure vessels having sand or another type of loose media are widely used in industrial filtration applications. During the cleaning cycle which is termed as “backlash”, the bed is lifted for losing the filter media and releasing the trapped dirt which is removed during the backwash flow. The bed is allowed for settling before the filter is returned for servicing after the backwash cycle. Following the settling for assuring the filtration media, a “filter-to-waste” cycle has sufficiently re-stratified and that any loose dirt has been removed from the underdrain/collectors. Media filtration is meant for a pressure filter vessel that uses three or more types of media compared to a sand filter which mainly uses one grade of sand alone as the filtration media. Inside a single media filter, during the settling cycle, the smallest or finest media particles remain on top of the media bed while the heavier and larger particles, stratify proportional to their mass lower in the filter. This can result in very limited use of the media depth as virtually all the filterable particles are trapped at the top of the filter bed or inside 1-2 inches of the top where the filter media particles have the lowest space among them. The filter running time is thus very short before the filter gets blinded or can develop high head pressure which needs to be backwashed for avoiding seriously stopping or impeding the flow. Media are mainly used with a variation of masses because, during backwashing, the lightest media having the largest particles will stratify naturally at the top of the filter while the intermediate-sized media will settle in the middle and the heaviest media having the smallest particles will settle in the bottom.
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