Solar Energy is a leading and major source of renewable energy that has the potential for meeting the various challenges which we as human beings face. This power source is getting increased in popularity due to its versatility and other benefits for the people and the environment. Climate change is leading to a real crisis with the alarmingly increasing numbers of hurricanes and floods caused by the disturbed weather patterns. The high content of carbon dioxide in the environment is making the ocean water acidic and is also killing marine life. Higher temperatures also lead to the melting of the polar ice caps which reduces the habitats for wildlife and the increasing sea level. Irregular rainfall or increasing droughts also affect the livelihoods and agriculture of the weaker sections of society all around the world. Climate change can be restricted by solar power. With a lesser carbon footprint, solar is a safe and effective alternative that can replace the usage of fossil fuels for generating electricity which produces water, air, and land pollution.
The required useful output cannot be offered by a single solar cell. So, for increasing the output power level of PV systems, it is needed for connecting a wide number of various PV solar cells. A solar module is normally connected in series to a sufficient number of solar cells for offering required standard output power and voltage. A single solar module can have a rating between 3 to 300 watts. The solar modules or PV modules are available commercially with the basic building block of a solar electric power generation system. A single solar PV cell actually generates a very low amount of energy which is around 0.1 or 2 watts but it's not practically useful for using such low power units as building blocks of a system. So, the required number of such cells are combined together for forming a practically commercially available solar unit that is known as a solar module or PV module. The solar cells are connected in the same fashion as the battery cell units in a battery bank system for a solar module. This means positive terminals of one cell connected to the negative terminal voltage of the solar module is simply the sum of the voltage of individual cells which are connected in series in the module.