Water filtration is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for specific purposes.
Water filtration may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, and fungi as well as reduce the concentration of a range of dissolved and particulate matter.
Water filtration systems are mostly a tertiary treatment process in wastewater treatment, and as the main treatment in pretreated water from the municipal water supply.
Water Filtration utilizes physical operation that separates solid impurities in the freshwater. A filter medium that has a complex structure through which only the fluid can pass. Solid particles that cannot pass through the filter medium are removes or separates as impurities and thus pure water is available for use.
Filtering media plays a vital role in the water treatment process as based on the impurities type and quantity of the media varies. Different types of media used infiltration process is sand, gravel, anthracite, activated carbon, resins, etc.
And in advance treatment process membrane-based processes are used for further removal of total dissolved solids. Reverse osmosis is the type of treatment process used in such kind of filtration system. Generally in the process of removing organic compounds and extraction of free chlorine from water, activated carbon filters are generally employed which thereby makes the water suitable for discharging or use for the manufacturing process. Organics such as fulvic and humic acids when gets eliminated in potable water prevent chlorine in the water from getting reacted chemically with the acids and forming trihalomethanes. As with any water treatment method, Activated Carbon (AC) filtration, is not capable of removing every possible type of contaminant. Like for example, microbes, sodium, nitrates, and fluoride cannot be removed by AC filtration. With activated carbon filtration, water softening can also be achieved by AC filters. Adding to that, heavy metals like lead can only be removed with a very specific kind of activated carbon water treatment, that typically can be used in residential point of use filters. For the industrial filtration system, there are several types of high-tech activated carbon filters available. Varying performance characteristics can be exhibited by activated carbon depending upon it's manufacturing way and the strata from which it is derived. the methods which are used for creating the various AC materials are highly proprietary and leads to distinct differences across the available range of media to the industry.