Pumps are hydraulic machines that are designed to transmit fluids under a head. Pumps lift the fluid up to a specified elevation by transforming the mechanical energy of the driving motor into the mechanical energy of the moving fluid and then deliver it over the required distance at the horizontal plane or make it circulating in a certain closed system. Pumps that perform one or many of the mentioned functions form a part of pumping station equipment one way or another. An electric motor is often connected to the power grid is used for driving the pump. Water or another working fluid is taken from the lower basin by the pump and pumped over the pressure pipeline to the higher basin which transforms the motor energy into fluid energy. The energy of the fluid which passes through a pump is always higher than that prior to passing through the pump. The main parameters of pumps that can determine the several ranges of pumping station operation mode, the configuration of its equipment, and the design features are discharge, pressure, efficiency, and capacity.
The main working part of the centrifugal pump is represented by an impeller that can rotate freely in the pump casing and it slipped right into the pump shaft. The impeller mainly comprises of two discs that are placed at a distance of some interval. There are vanes between the disks which can connect the latter into a single structure; these vanes turn smoothly to the opposite side to the direction of the rotation of the impeller. Irrigation Pumps are used for pumping out the water into a higher level from which the water then flows via the channels into the fields which need irrigation or for raising it to the required pressure head so that it can be sprayed on the fields via the piping systems. The heads involve range from around 1 m for normal lift operation to 40 m for sprinkling. In special cases, heads that can exceed 100m may be needed. In accordance with the area which needs to be irrigated, the nature of the soil, the type of the crop which is cultivated, and the climate, the flow rate varies. In common scenarios, irrigation pumps are mainly not equipped with variable speed drives. The rate of flow can be controlled either by switching the pumps on and off or with the help of a throttling valve in the pre-swirl control, discharge pipe, impeller blade pitch adjustment, or rotational speed. Both vertical and horizontal pumps are used as irrigation pumps.
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